We were concerned about them getting back. [33] She encouraged her grandchildren and students to pursue careers in science and technology. Katherine Coleman Goble Johnson (August 26, 1918 – February 24, 2020) was an African American physicist and mathematician. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, everybody at NASA's Langley Space Flight Research Center knew that computer Katherine Johnson was absolutely brilliant at complex mathematical calculations. Katherine was also responsible for sending many others to the moon. Teachers Many of Katherine's teacher's influenced her to do well in life. Da es noch keine Fachbücher zum Thema Weltraumfahrt gab, mussten Johnson und ihre Kollegen improvisieren und streckenweise die Bücher selbst schreiben. Feb 1, 1930 . [12] At the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, based in Hampton, Virginia, near Langley Field, NACA hired African-American mathematicians as well as whites for their Guidance and Navigation Department. Her work helped send astronauts to the Moon. [22], From 1958 until her retirement in 1986, Johnson worked as an aerospace technologist, moving during her career to the Spacecraft Controls Branch. Johnson’s mathematical genius was evident from an early age. So Ted left Pearson with no choice; I finished the report and my name went on it, and that was the first time a woman in our division had her name on something. [12] She was the first African-American woman to attend graduate school at West Virginia University in Morgantown, West Virginia. James died of an inoperable brain tumor in 1956 and, three years later, Katherine married James A. Klasse endeten, weshalb Coleman die Geschwister an einer afroamerikanischen Highschool des West Virginia Collegiate Institute anmeldete, die über zweihundert Kilometer entfernt war. When the mission was aborted, her work on backup procedures and charts helped set a safe path for the crew's return to Earth,[26] creating a one-star observation system that would allow astronauts to determine their location with accuracy. August 1918 in White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia; † 24. "Jim" Johnson, a United States Army officer and veteran of the Korean War; the pair were married for 60 years until his death in March 2019 at the age of 93. "[37], Johnson co-authored 26 scientific papers. ", "Katherine Johnson, real-life subject of 'Hidden Figures' receives standing ovation at Oscars", "Q&A: Our interview with Katherine G. Johnson, the real-life mathematician who inspired 'Hidden Figures, Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum, "William and Mary commencement sends graduates out on new adventure", "West Virginia State University to Honor Katherine Johnson with Statue, Scholarship", "Katherine Johnson to be included in Barbie 'Inspiring Women' series", "Inaugural Inductees Into Government Hall of Fame Unveiled", "NASA Dedicates Building To Hidden Figures Heroine Katherine Johnson", "NASA Honors 'Hidden Figure' Katherine Johnson", "Bethel School District names new school after pioneering black NASA mathematician Katherine Johnson", "Live, Learn, Pursue Passion – NASA Mathematician preps Class of 2006 to find its mission", "MLK Event to Feature 'Hidden Figures' Author Margot Lee Shetterly", National Center for Women & Information Technology, "Obama honoring Spielberg, Streisand and more with medal of freedom", "Katherine Johnson to receive the ASP's new Arthur B.C. From a young age, Johnson enjoyed mathematics and could easily solve mathematical equations. She led the way for women in not only NACA and NASA, but in STEM, to explore and create amazing discoveries about the world we live in. The division never returned her to the computing … 101 years old Katherine Coleman Goble Johnson was an American mathematician whose orbital mechanics calculations as a NASA employee were critical to the success of the first and subsequent crewed spaceflights in the United States. Her father mostly worked as a handyman at the Greenbrier Hotel, while her mother was a teacher. She was featured in the 2017 film Hidden figures . [4], From 1953 to 1958, Johnson worked as a computer,[19] analyzing topics such as gust alleviation for aircraft. She received the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2015. Walker II Award", "Katherine G. Johnson Presidential Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters", "Hidden Figures Premiere and Award Ceremony", "126th Continental Congress Daughters of the American Revolution Convene in Washington, D.C.", "Trailblazing African-American women to be honored at William & Mary Commencement", "2018 Honorary Degree: Katherine Johnson", "UJ honours 'human computer' Katherine Johnson", "UJ honours NASA pioneer and African-American icon Katherine Johnson", "H.R.1396 - Hidden Figures Congressional Gold Medal Act", "NASA's 'hidden figures' to be awarded Congressional Gold Medals", Human Computers: The Women in Aeronautical Research, "Determination of Azimuth Angle at Burnout for Placing a Satellite Over a Selected Earth Position", "Obituary: Katherine Johnson (1918–2020)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Katherine_Johnson&oldid=991931938, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Calculating trajectories for NASA missions, 1971, 1980, 1984, 1985, 1986: NASA Langley Research Center Special Achievement award, 1999, West Virginia State College Outstanding Alumnus of the Year, 2014, De Pizan Honor from National Women's History Museum, 2016, Presidential Honorary Doctorate of Humane Letters from, On December 1, 2016, Johnson received the Langley West Computing Unit, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 16:11. Although the installation was desegregated,[20] forms of discrimination were still pervasive. Katherine graduated high school at age 14 Institute. Mathematician and computer scientist Katherine Johnson was born on August 26, 1918 in White Sulphur Springs, West Virginia to Joylette and Joshua Coleman. While the racial and gender barriers were always there, Katherine says she ignored them. In an interview with WHRO-TV, Johnson stated that she "didn't feel the segregation at NASA, because everybody there was doing research. [1] In 1970, Johnson worked on the Apollo 13 Moon mission. [4], Da sie zwei Klassen übersprungen hatte, kam Johnson bereits mit nur zehn Jahren in die Highschool. [26] In 1961, her work helped to ensure that Alan Shepard's Freedom 7 Mercury capsule would be found quickly after landing, using the accurate trajectory that had been established. [1] She also calculated the launch window for his 1961 Mercury mission. On November 6, 2020, a satellite named after her (ÑuSat 15 or "Katherine", COSPAR 2020-079G) was launched into space. And so would numerous other astronauts to come. Im Jahr 1940 erhielt sie das Angebot, am West Virginia State College (WVSC, jetzt West Virginia State University) ein postgraduales Studium zu absolvieren, musste es aber aufgrund der Krebserkrankung ihres Ehemanns aufgeben und ihre Lehrtätigkeit wieder aufnehmen. Katherine Johnson, American mathematician who calculated and analyzed the flight paths of many spacecraft during her more than three decades with the U.S. space program. [45] In a 2016 video NASA stated, "Her calculations proved as critical to the success of the Apollo Moon landing program and the start of the Space Shuttle program, as they did to those first steps on the country's journey into space. I knew it was there, but I didn't feel it."[21]. [13] [3], Die schwarzen Mathematikerinnen, von Johnson als „Computer in Röcken“[3] bezeichnet, hatten aufgrund der in den USA praktizierten Rassentrennung ein von ihren weißen Kolleginnen gesondertes Büro und konnten an andere Abteilungen „ausgeliehen“ werden. Katherine's knowledge of analytic geometry helped make quick allies of male bosses and colleagues to the extent that, "they forgot to return me to the pool". [48], Science writer Maia Weinstock developed a prototype Lego for Women of NASA in 2016 and included Johnson; she declined to have her likeness printed on the final product. Zur US-amerikanischen Ruderin siehe, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Katherine Johnson: The Girl Who Loved to Count, Katherine Johnson honored with Bench in Downtown Hampton, Familie droht wegen Frida-Kahlo-Barbie mit Klage, https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Katherine_Johnson&oldid=200776953, Ehrendoktor einer Universität in den Vereinigten Staaten, Träger der Goldenen Ehrenmedaille des Kongresses, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“, Johnson, Katherine G.; Coleman, Katherine (Geburtsname); Goble, Katherine, US-amerikanische Mathematikerin afroamerikanischer Abstammung, 1967: NASA Lunar Orbiter Spacecraft and Operations Team award. Klasse zusammengefasst. The first jobs she found were in teaching. Durch ihre Kenntnisse in analytischer Geometrie machte Johnson sich schnell unentbehrlich für ihre neuen Kollegen, die nach Ablauf der Frist „vergaßen, mich wieder abzugeben“. [8][18], Johnson decided on a career as a research mathematician, although this was a difficult field for African Americans and women to enter. Claytor added new mathematics courses just for Johnson. Johnson recalled that era: We needed to be assertive as women in those days – assertive and aggressive – and the degree to which we had to be that way depended on where you were. Ich wusste, wie viele Schritte es von unserem Haus zur Kirche waren.“[2] Als sie einmal ihrem Bruder in die Schule folgte, stellten die Lehrer erstaunt fest, dass sie bereits lesen konnte, und ließen sie am Unterricht teilnehmen. On September 22, 2017, NASA opened the Katherine G. Johnson Computational Research Facility in Hampton, Virginia. She worked with NASA and was responsible for calculating the trajectory for the space flight of Alan Shepard, the first American in space. "[1], The highly acclaimed film Hidden Figures, released in December 2016, was based on the non-fiction book of the same title by Margot Lee Shetterly, which was published earlier that year. Sie stellten keine Fragen und gingen nicht über ihre Aufgaben hinaus. The three leading ladies did an excellent job portraying us. Daher wurde Johnson, als sie mit sechs Jahren selbst in die Schule kam, direkt in die zweite Klasse geschickt. Johnson wurde am 26. Through WVSC's president, Dr. John W. Davis, she became one of three African-American students,[12] and the only woman, selected to integrate the graduate school after the 1938 United States Supreme Court ruling Missouri ex rel. Johnson heiratete 1939 James Francis Goble, mit dem sie die drei Töchter Constance, Joylette und Kathy hatte. Their office was labeled as "Colored Computers". Ihre Mutter war eine ehemalige Lehrerin, ihr Vater Farmer, der mitunter als Hausmeister im Greenbrier Hotel arbeitete. [13][18], Im Februar 2019 benannte die NASA das Independent Verification and Validation Facility in Fairmont (West Virginia) nach Katherine Johnson. Katherine Johnson loved math. The only way she accomplished so many spectacular things was that she asked questions. Johnson's work included calculating trajectories, launch windows, and emergency return paths for Project Mercury spaceflights, including those for astronauts Alan Shepard, the first American in space, and John Glenn, the first American in orbit, and rendezvous paths for the Apollo Lunar Module and command module on flights to the Moon. [1] During her 35-year career at NASA and its predecessor, she earned a reputation for mastering complex manual calculations and helped pioneer the use of computers to perform the tasks. [6] 1958 wurde die NACA zur NASA. "[47] In a 2016 episode of the NBC series Timeless, titled "Space Race", the mathematician is portrayed by Nadine Ellis. I was working with Ted Skopinski and he wanted to leave and go to Houston ... but Henry Pearson, our supervisor – he was not a fan of women – kept pushing him to finish the report we were working on. www.nasa.gov/content/katherine-johnson-biography", "Black history... Katherine G Johnson (1918 – retired), "Katherine G. Johnson: Physicist, Space Scientist, Mathematician", "Peninsula Officials: Regions Disaster-Ready", "Katherine G. Johnson Computational Research Facility Ribbon Cutting", "NASA Dedicates Facility to Mathematician, Presidential Medal Winner", "Katherine Johnson at NASA Langley Research Center", "BBC 100 Women 2016: Who is on the list? [16][17] Der Regisseur Theodore Melfi setzte kurze Zeit später mit dem auf Shetterlys Buch basierenden Biopic Hidden Figures – Unerkannte Heldinnen Johnson und ihren Kolleginnen Dorothy Vaughan und Mary Jackson und damit ihrer „nicht erzählten“ Geschichte auch filmisch ein Denkmal. In the early days of NASA women were not allowed to put their names on the reports – no woman in my division had had her name on a report. Katherine Johnson (pictured in figure 1), one of the central characters in Hidden Figures, is an outstanding example of a computer who, as Barry put it, “pushed the engineers she was working with” and suggested alternate ways of tackling problems. On Monday, Feb. 24, mathematician Katherine Johnson died at 101. Katherine G. Johnson (gebürtig Coleman, zwischenzeitlich verheiratet Goble; * 26. Ihr Direktor, Sherman H. Gus, begleitete sie oft auf dem Heimweg und lehrte sie Sternkonstellationen, was ihr Interesse für Astronomie weckte. The facility officially opened its doors on September 22, 2017. Mai 2016 wurde in einer feierlichen Zeremonie, an der die damals 97-Jährige teilnahm, ein noch im Bau befindliches Rechenzentrum der NASA nach Katherine Johnson benannt. [49] On May 12, 2018, she was awarded an honorary doctorate by the College of William & Mary. I had to be. She was a human computer. Originally assigned to the West Area Computers section supervised by mathematician Dorothy Vaughan, Johnson was reassigned to the Guidance and Control Division of Langley's Flight Research Division. [1][26] During the Moon landing, Johnson was at a meeting in the Pocono Mountains. „Ich zählte Schritte. When Katherine Johnson ­began working at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in 1953, she was classified as “subprofessional,” not far outranking a secretary or janitor. Katherine Johnson was 1 of the first 3 black people allowed to study at West Virginia University, which before that was officially racist and did not let black people be students. And it has taken history to get a perspective on that. Juni 2020 um 08:34 Uhr bearbeitet. 1999: Outstanding Alumnus of the Year (zu deutsch: Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 9. Sie selbst gab zu, dass sie während ihrer Arbeit oftmals auf ihre Intuition zurückgreifen musste, da vieles noch unerprobt war, und dass einer der Astronauten über sie sagte: „Ich würde Kates Intuition jederzeit trauen.“[5] Bis zu ihrer Pensionierung im Jahr 1986 wirkte Johnson darüber hinaus an der ersten Phase des Space-Shuttle-Programms mit.[7]. Hometown. Am 22. [6] Auch hielt sie Kontakt mit Astronauten und Angestellten der NASA. With her 33-year career at NASA Katherine Johnson opened doors for all women in science and mathematics. Katherine Johnson was born in White Sulphur Springs, WV. Then one day, Katherine (and a colleague) were temporarily assigned to help the all-male flight research team. Katherine Johnson, one of the African American women whose stories received global attention in the best-selling book and blockbuster movie, “Hidden Figures,” has turned 101. [26] Author Margot Lee Shetterly stated, "So the astronaut who became a hero, looked to this black woman in the still-segregated South at the time as one of the key parts of making sure his mission would be a success." [20] In keeping with state racial segregation laws, and federal workplace segregation introduced under President Woodrow Wilson in the early 20th century, Johnson and the other African-American women in the computing pool were required to work, eat, and use restrooms that were separate from those of their white peers. The space agency noted her "historical role as one of the first Af… Early in her career, she was called a “computer.” She helped NASA put an astronaut into orbit around Earth. August 1918 als jüngstes Kind von Joylette und Joshua Coleman geboren, die bereits drei Kinder hatten: Charles, Margaret und Horace. Gaines v. Canada 305 U.S. 337 (1938)", "She Was a Computer When Computers Wore Skirts", "On Being a Black Female Math Whiz During the Space Race", "Katherine Johnson Interview: NASA's Human Computer", "The Black Female Mathematicians Who Sent Astronauts to Space", "The unbelievable life of the forgotten genius who turned Americans' space dreams into reality", "Katherine Johnson, Legendary Mathematician and Inspiration for the Upcoming Film Hidden Figures, Turns 98", "Mathematics pioneer Katherine Johnson, portrayed in 'Hidden Figures,' dies at 101", "The Untold History of Women in Science and Technology: Katherine Johnson", "Real life 'Hidden Figures' mathematician is longtime Presbyterian", "Local hero, NASA mathematician Katherine Johnson dies at 101", "Our @NASA family is sad to learn the news that Katherine Johnson passed away this morning at 101 years old. You probably know the name Katherine G. 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