These ecosystems, functioning in healthy relationship, offer such things like natural pollination of crops, clean air, extreme weather … Forests provide a wide range of economic and social benefits for instance through employment, value generated from the processing and trade of forest products, and investments in the forest sector. These benefits are, among others, nutrition, access to clean air and water, health, safety, and enjoyment and they affect (increase) human wellbeing, which is the key target of managing the socio-economic systems. The widespread death of trees leads to a series of changes in a forest ecosystem. View Homework Help - 5B383F00-255B-4407-942A-09D9BB30D541 from AP ENGLISH 576 at Bayside High School, Bayside. A first look to the comparison of the three classifications suggests that there are important commonalities between them. And finally, ecosystem services are “the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems -the direct and indirect contributions of ecosystems to human wellbeing” (TEEB 2010). However, there are also other two international classifications of ES applied according to MA (2005) and TEEB initiatives (2010). Trees or other plants also play an important role in regulating air quality by removing pollutants from … 21, http://www.maweb.org/documents/document.290.aspx.pdf. Forests are widely recognized as major providers of ecosystem services, including timber, other forest products, recreation, regulation of water, soil and air quality, and climate change mitigation. a Identify one other invasive species, either terrestrial or aquatic, and describe one negative impact it has had. Pollination by native insects is considered an ecosystem service. Rainforest ecosystem services are not just vital for their regulating roles. Excluding fire reduction, describe ONE positive and ONE negative effect likely to result from the implementation of the provisions of the HFI. TEEB (2010) Integrating the ecological and economic dimensions in biodiversity and ecosystem service valuation, Ch 1. http://www.teebweb.org/EcologicalandEconomicFoundation/tabid/1018/Default.aspx, Haines-Young, R.; Potschin, M. (2013): Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES): Consultation on Version 4, August-December 2012. Wild foods from forests are often underestimated. There are three interlinked concepts related to the provision of ecosystem services, i.e. Forest Ecosystem Services Forests cover nearly a third of the Earth’s surface and support much of the world’s biodiversity. MA (2003) Ecosystems and Human Well-being: A Framework for Assessment, Ch. Ecosystems influence the local climate and air quality. From the original classification of ESS from MA, TEEB and CICES a comparison including only FES is shown in the Table . Ecosystem processes include decomposition, production, nutrient cycling, and fluxes of nutrients and energy (MA 2005). In this paper, the preferences of ecosystem services provided by different types of urban forests in South Korea are analyzed to provide insights on the improved distribution and supply of ecosystem services. Processes and functions occur inside the ecosystem and are influenced by anthropic drivers that may have an impact (positive and negative) in the provision of services. Identify TWO characteristics of forests that develop when fires are suppressed, and explain why the practice of fire suppression does not reduce, but actually increases, the risk of intense and extensive forest fires. In this regard, forests provide the best conditions for nutrient and water cycling, primary production and facilitate soil formation. Explain how clear cutting would affect each ecosystem service you describe. It supports conservation and biodiversity maintenance as prime habitat for many types of species. However, not all benefits to people from ecosystems can be measured in monetary terms. 1997). Ecosystem process is “any change or reaction which occurs within ecosystems, physical, chemical or biological. Higher levels of dead tree matter release more carbon dioxide through decomposition. ecosystem process, ecosystem function, and ecosystem service. Because the National Grasslands contain large areas of intact prairie and other grassland types, they provide the ecosystem service of carbon sequestration in grassland vegetation and … Food comes principally from managed agroecosystems but marine and freshwater systems or forests also provide food for human consumption. Forests provide a full suite of goods and services that are vital to human health and livelihood, natural assets we call ecosystem services. Support for downstream fisheries 20.00 Firewood 7.96 Fishing 6.26 Recreation 5.28 Domestic sewage treatment 4.32 Freshwater supply for local people 3.78 Carbon sequestration 0.78 Total 726.49 Economic values an ecosystem service Emerton & Kekulandala, 2003 Food ▹ Ecosystems provide the conditions for growing food. MAES, according to Common International Classification of Ecosystem Services (CICES, 2013), classifies ES into three groups: Provisioning, Regulating/Maintenance and Cultural services. Cambridge: Earthscan. Extensive tracts of boreal forests are actively managed for timber production, but actions aimed at increasing timber yields also affect other forest functions and services. Service #1: Forests provide oxygen (via photosynthesis). MAES (2013): Mapping and Assessment of Ecosystems and their Services – An analytical framework for ecosystem assessments under Action 5 of the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020. Below, we are looking at the interaction between the different production systems and the types of ecosystem services according to the typology of The Economics of Ecosystems … Rainforests are also crucial to culture and society. The second concept is ecosystem function that is a “subset of the interactions between biophysical structures, biodiversity and ecosystem processes that underpin the capacity of an ecosystem to provide ecosystem services (TEEB 2010). The focus on benefits implies that ecosystem services are open to economic valuation. C sequestration), Maintenance of physical, chemical, biological conditions / Soil formation and composition, Maintenance of physical, chemical, biological conditions / Lifecycle maintenance, habitat and gene pool protection, Maintenance of genetic diversity (especially in gene pool protection), Spiritual, symbolic and other interactions with ecosystems and landscapes / Spiritual and/or emblematic, Physical and intellectual interactions with ecosystems and landscapes / Intellectual and representative interactions, Physical and intellectual interactions with ecosystems and landscapes / Physical and experiential interactions, Spiritual, symbolic and other interactions with ecosystems and landscapes / Other cultural outputs, (in MA services necessary for the production of all other ES). Those who gain a sense of place are also more likely to perceive that they have attained the benefits they desire and will want to visit forests again in the future (Kil and others 2012). Culture Sustaining. Although you cannot put a value on all the ways the natural world enriches our lives, there are many tangible benefits to living in a world with strong and healthy ecosystems. The scope of this web-portal is specifically on forest ecosystem services (FES) – those ES provided by forest ecosystems. Describe one viable method for preventing the spread of zebra mussels into isolated lakes, Mechanism of introduction: Transport of boats or boat trailers with mussels attached. Describe TWO specific economic consequences of the collapse of the managed honeybee colonies. is “any change or reaction which occurs within ecosystems, physical, chemical or biological. One strategy for controlling an invasive species has been to introduce another nonnative species to control it; this strategy can often have unintended results. Forests stores carbon and seizes growth from the atmosphere, which contributes to climate change mitigation and the carbon cycle. Benefits also include the hosting and protection of sites and landscapes of high cultural, spiritual, or recreational value. The USDA Forest Service has been exploring use of an ecosystem services framework to describe forest values provided by public lands and to attract and build partnerships with stakeholders to implement projects. There are three interlinked concepts related to the provision of ecosystem services, i.e. Tropical forests have incredibly high species diversity– and moist tropical forests contain over two- thirds of all land-based species. Identify TWO physical changes that occur in the forest ecosystem as the result of the death of mature trees. For more details about ESS and FES classification see the FOREST EUROPE Final Report on Valuation of Forest Ecosystem Services (2014). We offer FSC Ecosystems Services verification internationally as an addition to Forest Management certification, allowing our clients to make specific claims about the ecosystem services provided by their forests. Agriculture, forestry and fisheries are influenced and influence all types of ecosystem services. Several classification approaches to classification of ecosystem services has been developed. Supporting services These are services that are necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services. Recreational services; The FSC ® Ecosystem Services procedure aims to help to preserve these services for the good of all who use them. b) Planted forests can take economic pressure off of natural forests, provide livelihoods and support local industry development, Keenan said. The Delphi technique was utilized to elicit expert opinions on the categorization of ecosystem services provided by urban forests. For example, trees provide shade whilst forests influence rainfall and water availability both locally and regionally. D. Wetlands provide protection against storm damage and floods, a regulating ecosystem service. It is estimated that about half of the world’s species are found in forested areas, particularly in species-rich tropical forests. vital. ... as a decision support tool, to identify potential winners and losers when adopting a certain management alternative, Ecosystems provide us with valuable resources, such as timber (from forests) and biofuels from plants, which are the primary materials used in construction activities. a) Identify and describe one supporting ecosystem service provided by forests. It is worth mention that the last column of this table (FES in CICES) is in line with results of the MAES Forest Ecosystem Services Pilot MAES 2014 that provided an agreed classification of FES derived from CICES up to class level to be used at pan-European level. are “the benefits that people obtain from ecosystems -the direct and indirect contributions of ecosystems to human wellbeing” (TEEB 2010). Reduced winter mortality of beetle larvae is likely a consequence of global climate change. Service #1: Forests provide oxygen (via photosynthesis) Impact: Some loss of oxygen, without which we cannot live Service #2: Forests provide wood for fuel Impact: increase in the short-term availability of wood, but potential long-term loss of availability Comparison of these three main classification schemes. We have a stronger economy, diverse food products, and advancements in medical research as a result of wildlife and natural ecosystems. 21 http://www.maweb.org/documents/document.290.aspx.pdf, TEEB (2010) Integrating the ecological and economic dimensions in biodiversity and ecosystem service valuation, Ch 1. http://www.teebweb.org/EcologicalandEconomicFoundation/tabid/1018/Default.aspx. clean air, water, and food (Constanza et al. 3.1 Ecosystem services and disservices provided by native tropical forests In 2014, the Center for Global Development (CGD) produced a report discussing that different ecosystem services that tropical forests can provide (Brandon, 2014). The scope of this web-portal is specifically on, Fresh water (water purification) (also Regulation service), Materials / Biomass, fibre (genetic resources), Maintenance of physical, chemical, biological conditions / Pest and disease control, Maintenance of physical, chemical, biological conditions / Water conditions, Maintenance of physical, chemical, biological conditions / Atmospheric composition and climate regulation, Climate regulation (incl. They … For each physical change you identify, describe an impact of that change on the forest ecosystem. They also provide multiple goods and services which benefit people in many ways: economically, materially, health-wise, emotionally or socially. Biodiversity – the variety of all life on earth – plays a key role in the structural set-up of ecosystems, which is essential to maintaining basic ecosystem processes and supporting ecosystem functions. From the original classification of ESS from MA, TEEB and CICES a comparison including only FES is shown in the Table . The present study focuses on the 70 papers found in that study that attempted to value mangrove ecosystem services. Explain how the fire maintains the community or biome. Putting air conditioning in homes is an example of a cultural ecosystem service. Identify and explain one impact that zebra mussels can have on aquatic ecosystems. The effects of the HFI are expected to extend beyond fire reduction. The findings from this report are summarized here and expanded upon when necessary. A. The importance or “value” of ecosystems is viewed and expressed differently by different disciplines, cultural conceptions, philosophical views, and schools of thought. MA (2005): Ecosystems and human well-being: biodiversity synthesis. This study is an expansion of a previous study that analyzed the ecosystem service literature for blue forest ecosystems (Himes-Cornell et al., 2018, see this publication for a complete description of the literature review methods). Thus the flow of ES is seen as the link between socio-economic systems and ecosystems (MAES 2013), and this is the aspect usually accounted for assessment and valuation of ES. Many other policies also affect these drivers and thus can be added to the framework as they have an impact on ecosystems even though they might not target them at all (e.g. Where forests contribute effectively to sustainable development, through ensuring Tropical forests provide diverse ecosystem services largely because they have high density and diversity, packing in a lot of species and biomass compared to other forests. Ecosystem processes include decomposition, production, nutrient cycling, and fluxes of nutrients and energy (MA 2005). B. Why are zebra mussels located primarily in areas in the eastern United States rather than in the western United States, The western mountain ranges (Rockies) serve as a natural barrier to dispersal, How are zebra mussels introduced into isolated lakes? Provisioning Goods. well-being. Such ecosystems include, for example, agroecosystems, forest ecosystems, grassland ecosystems and aquatic ecosystems. 2. http://www.maweb.org/documents/document.300.aspx.pdf and MA (2005) Global & Multiscale Assessment Reports, Current State & Trends Assessment, Ch. Therefore, it is important to include other values as well, such as health value, social value or conservation value. EEA Framework Contract No EEA/IEA/09/003, Click here to open the Web Portal on Forest Ecosystem Services, Valuation approaches and methods classified according to type of FES to be valued, Overview of valuation approaches and methods. A first look to the comparison of the three classifications suggests that there are important commonalities between them. Providing living spaces for plants or animals and maintaining a diversity of plants and animals, are ‘ supporting services ' and the basis of all ecosystems and their services. MA (2003) Ecosystems and Human Well-being: A Framework for Assessment, Ch. Luxembourg: Publications office of the European Union. Timber is a primary ecosystem service provided by forests and is integral to market economies. They are increasingly popular … Valuation of Forest Ecosystem Services. It is noticeable that CICES is an extendable classification and that a further level of disaggregation (class) is not shown in the Table for the sake of readability. The governance of the coupled socio-economic-ecological system is an integral part of the framework: Institutions, stakeholders and users of ecosystem services affect ecosystems through direct or indirect drivers of change. 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