Some Rights Reserved (2009-2021) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. [ IHO Index ] [ Search] [House of Seleucus] [ Roman Rulers] [ House of Caesar] [ Josephus] Both he and his successors supported the many local cults. Books Jealousy and in-fighting were common. Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization. Unfortunately, his close relationship with Rome caused him to be despised by the Alexandrians and expelled in 58 BCE. They remained completely Greek, both in their language & traditions. While Ptolemy I did not intentionally seek territory outside Egypt, he would, however, take advantage of an occasion if it arose and he would occupy the island of Cyprus in c. 318 BCE. https://ancientegypt.fandom.com/wiki/Ptolemaic_Dynasty?oldid=9293, Cleopatra III Philometor Soteira Dikaiosyne Nikephoros (Kokke) (116 BCE-101 BCE) ruled jointly with. In 163 BCE his brother and he finally reached a compromise whereby Ptolemy VI acquired Egypt while Ptolemy VIII ruled Cyrene. He was succeeded briefly by his youngest son Ptolemy XI Alexander II (100 – 80 BCE). He then married the daughter of Cleopatra V Serene (his niece), Berenice III. Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (also known as Auletes) was another son of Ptolemy IX succeeding Ptolemy XI in 80 BCE. 1. Arsinoe was taken to Rome in chains (later to be released). In 101 BCE he supposedly murdered his mother Cleopatra IV. The Ptolemys coexisted as both Egyptian pharaohs as well as Greek monarchs. Ptolemy VIII was succeeded by his eldest son in 116 BCE. However, in Egypt Ptolemy saw vast potential, albeit selfishly. He ruled jointly with his mother Cleopatra III until 107 BCE when he fled to Cyprus after being overthrown by his brother. Last modified September 29, 2016. Ptolemy XII Bustby Veselin (Public Domain). His successor and son Ptolemy IV Philopator (Father-loving) (244 – 205 BCE) came to the Egyptian throne in 221 BCE. One of Ptolemy I’s first moves was to relocate the center of government from its traditional location at Memphis - it would remain the religious center - to the newly built city of Alexandria. Finally, an amnesty was reached in 118 BCE. In Egypt, he established trading posts along the Red Sea, completed construction on the Pharos, and enlarged the library and museum. Its beacon was visible for miles and was lit both day and night, eventually becoming one of seven wonders of the ancient world. Ptolemy I’s advisor on the project was Demetrius of Phaleron, a graduate of Aristotle’s Lyceum in Athens; the library truly became a center of Hellenistic culture. Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. As with the rest of the Mediterranean - described once as a Roman lake - Egypt submitted to Roman rule and the power of the Ptolemys ended. The rulers were members of the Ptolemaic family, a Macedonian family that had ties to Alexander the Great. [Livius: Articles in Ancient History].The House of Ptolemy - e-edition of E. R. Bevan's 1927 classic historical study [archived on Bill Thayer's Lacus Curtius]. He had joined unsuccessfully with his sister Arsinoe in a civil war, choosing to oppose both Julius Caesar and Cleopatra in a fight for the throne. Our latest articles delivered to your inbox, once a week: Numerous educational institutions recommend us, including Oxford University and Michigan State University and University of Missouri. Web. Ptolemaic Dynasty. To secure the throne after defeating her brothers and sister, she realized she had to remain friendly with Rome. Their rule lasted for 275 years, from 305 BC to 30 BC. During his stay in Egypt, he also founded the legendary city of Alexandriaat the location of the formerly unimportant Egyptian town of Rhakotis. The final ruler of Egypt's Ptolemaic dynasty, she used her political tact, personal connections and endless capacity for reinvention to become the sole woman of the ancient world to rule … Unfortunately, he was then himself murdered by the Alexandrians. Donald has taught Ancient, Medieval and U.S. History at Lincoln College (Normal, Illinois)and has always been and will always be a student of history, ever since learning about Alexander the Great. After the death of Cleomenes, Ptolemy I quickly and firmly began to establish himself in Egypt. After a quick, decisive victory, he turned the fallen conqueror over to the city who promptly executed him. During Ptolemy’s four-decade rule of Egypt, he would put the country on sound economic and administrative footing. As with much of the former Alexandrian empire, Greek would become the language of government and commerce. To honor his parents he established a new festival, the Ptolemaeia. He was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BC. Ptolemy, a Macedonian and one of Alexander the Great 's generals, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BCE. The city was Greek both in language and practice. He married the Seleucid princess Cleopatra I in 193 BCE. Unfortunately, while the partition may have granted Egypt to Ptolemy, there were some who did not trust the cagey commander, namely Perdiccas, the self-appointed successor to Alexander. He married Berenice II from the Greek city of Cyrene. Ptolemaic synonyms, Ptolemaic pronunciation, Ptolemaic translation, English dictionary definition of Ptolemaic. Aside from Alexandria, another city, less glamorous, was built in Upper Egypt: Ptolemais was founded as a center for the influx of newly arrived Greek residents. The Ptolemaic dynasty was a Hellenistic royal family which ruled over Egypt for nearly 300 years, from 305 BCE to 30 BCE. The last Ptolemaic queen was the famous Cleopatra, the lover of Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. The first Ptolemy came to power after the death of Alexander the Great in Babylonia. The history of Egypt has been long and wealthy, due to the flow of the Nile River with its fertile banks and delta, as well as the accomplishments of Egypt's native inhabitants and outside influence. Among their six children were Ptolemy IV and a princess also named Berenice. Ptolemy I (Soter) 323-282 BC; Judean coins "YHD" coins in the early Ptolemaic empire (Egypt): "Coins 29-30: These coins too, on one side of which is seen a youthful male head and on the other an eagle, lack the characteristics of the Persian period. The next few pharaohs made little impact if any on Egypt, and for the first time, a rising power in the west made a major impact, Rome. Actually, this was not uncommon for there was little love if ever between the city’s citizens and the royal family. This unique lighthouse was an immense structure of three stories. The Persian conquerors had been intolerant of the Egyptian customs and religion. III. Related Content Little is known of the reign or person known as Ptolemy VII or if indeed he ever really reigned, but Ptolemy VIII, the younger brother of Ptolemy VI, stepped onto the throne in 145 BCE. She endeared herself to the Egyptian people, participating in many Egyptian festivals and ceremonies as well as being the only Ptolemy to learn the Egyptian language besides spea… Written by Donald L. Wasson, published on 29 September 2016 under the following license: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited is a non-profit company registered in the United Kingdom. However, largely ineffective, his only other accomplishment was the building of the Sema, a tomb to honor both Alexander and the Ptolemys. A civil war ravaged Egypt lasting from 132 to 124 BCE; it especially devastated the capital city of Alexandria, which happened to hate Ptolemy VIII. Their rule lasted from 305 BC to 30 BC for a total of 275 years. Her relationship with Julius Caesar has been the subject of the dramatists and poets for centuries. His sole purpose was to make Egypt great again. In chapter 18 of  Hellenistic Egypt (2007, pp. Ptolemy VI Philometor 180-164 & 163-145 B.C. The Ptolemaic Dynasty The Ptolemaic Dynasty was the 32nd and last dynasty in Ancient Egypt. 2. Wasson, D. L. (2016, September 29). Ptolemy, a Macedonian and one of Alexander the Great's generals, was appointed satrap of Egypt after Alexander's death in 323 BCE. The next pharaoh Ptolemy XIII (63 – 47 BCE) was the brother and husband of the infamous Cleopatra VII. The final decision would bring decades of war and devastation. Her son by Caesar, Caesarion (Ptolemy XV), was put to death by Octavian. Lastly, the final pharaoh of Egypt was Cleopatra VII who is known to history as simply Cleopatra. He was the son and successor of Ptolemy V … Locally, the temple priests remained as a part of the ruling class – another test of their allegiance to the Ptolemys. He had even built a temple to honor the Egyptian mother goddess Isis. Ancient Egypt Wiki is a FANDOM Lifestyle Community. He fought two wars – the Syrian Wars – against Antiochus I and Antiochus II (260 – 252 BCE) and would marry his daughter Berenice to Antiochus II. Ptolemy IX Soter II (Savior) (142 – 80 BCE) was also known as Lathyrus (Chickpea). In ancient Egypt: The Ptolemaic dynasty Until the day when he openly assumed an independent kingship as Ptolemy I Soter, on November 7, 305 bce, Ptolemy used only the title satrap of Egypt, but the great hieroglyphic Satrap stela, which he had inscribed in 311 bce, indicates a degree… In 305 BCE, he declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as "Soter" (saviour). This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon this content non-commercially, as long as they credit the author and license their new creations under the identical terms. All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy, while queens regnant were all called Cleopatra Following Ptolemy XIII was another brother Ptolemy XIV (59 – 44 BCE) who had served briefly as governor of Cyprus and later married his sister (on the wishes of Caesar), ruling until his abrupt death possibly caused by poisoning on the orders of his big sister. Ptolemaic Egypt rapidly established itself as an economic powerhouse of the ancient world at the end of the 4th century BCE. To keep peace with the temple priests, he restored numerous religious objects stolen by the Persians. Their reign lasted from 323 BC to 30 BC according to the Biblical Timeline Poster with World History. One of the most significant features of Ptolemaic rule was its policy of Hellenization, integrating Greek language and culture into Egyptian daily life. In Ptolemy’s eyes, Egypt was the ideal land, rich in resources. Following the Battle of Panium in 200 BCE Egypt lost valuable territory in the Aegean and Asia Minor, including Palestine. He regained the throne in 88 BCE and ruled until his death in 80 BCE. The vast territory was split among the most loyal of Alexander’s generals: Antigonus I the One-Eyed, Eumenes, Lysimachus, Antipater and lastly, Ptolemy, the 'most enterprising' of Alexander’s commanders. Ptolemy's family ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest of 30 BCE. Retrieved from https://www.ancient.eu/Ptolemaic_Dynasty/. With the assistance of Rome, Ptolemy VI regained nominal control of Egypt, but his reign - ruling with his brother and wife - remained full of unrest. After Alexander’s death in 323 BC, his empire was divided between his generals. The Ptolemaic dynasty controlled Egypt for almost three centuries (305 – 30 BCE), eventually falling to the Romans. She endeared herself to the Egyptian people, participating in many Egyptian festivals and ceremonies as well as being the only Ptolemy to learn the Egyptian language besides speaking Hebrew, Ethiopian, and other dialects. adj. The Ancient History Encyclopedia logo is a registered EU trademark. Ptolemy II married the daughter of the Thracian regent/king Lysimachus, Arsinoe I. In every respect they remained completely Greek, both in their language and traditions. The dates in brackets are regnal dates for the kings. The princess’ sudden death brought about the Canopus Decree (238 BCE) which, among other proclamations, honored her as a goddess. 240-253... A History of Egypt IV, the Ptolemaic Dynasty, A History Of Egypt Under The Ptolemaic Dynasty, The Last Pharaohs: Egypt Under the Ptolemies, 305-30 BC, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike. Cite This Work For alliance purposes, after the death of his first wife, Lysimachus had chosen to marry Arsinoe II, the daughter of Ptolemy I and his mistress Berenice, around 300 BCE. While the museum provided seating for quiet reflection, the library amassed a collection of thousands of papyrus scrolls, attracting men of philosophy, history, literature, and science from all over the Mediterranean for decades to come. In 246 BCE Ptolemy III invaded Syria to support his sister’s husband Antiochus II in the Third Syrian War against Seleucus II but only acquired towns in Syria and Asia Minor. However, while the old Egyptian gods were respected – one did not want to anger the gods – two new cults arose: the first was dedicated to Alexander the Great, which for the Greek population served as a way to express their continued loyalty to the Ptolemys. Ptolemy was the son of For reasons unknown – probably to secure the throne of Thrace for her own son – Arsinoe II convinced her husband to kill his oldest son (by his first marriage) and heir on the trumped-up charges of treason. After awarding Egypt and Cyprus to Rome, Ptolemy XI was placed on the throne by the Roman general Cornelius Sulla and ruled jointly with his step-mother Cleopatra Berenice until he murdered her. With the death of Caesar and the balance of power in Rome in question, she sided, unfortunately, with the Roman general Mark Antony, only to lose it all at the Battle of Actium. It was a marriage he would regret. In fact, the Ptolemys would rarely leave the city and then only to take a pleasure cruise down the Nile. The garment has a stiff upper edge along the back of the neck, a feature that occurs with some regularity on this garment, but one with an unclear meaning. The Ptolemaic Dynasty did not come to an end until 30 BC when the famous CLEOPATRA died. Later on, Egypt was an imperial province, directly controlled by the Roman emperor. Unfortunately, war and revolt by Seleucid and Macedonian kings with hopes to seize Egyptian lands followed his ascension. Far less is known of the material culture of Palestine in the Ptolemaic period. Palestine, like Egypt and Syria, seems to have had no economic freedom under Ptolemaic rule; in all transactions the hand of the government’s agents is clearly visible. They frequently ruled jointly with their wives, who were often also their sisters. The Ptolemaic dynasty, also known as the Lagids or Lagidae, was a Macedonian Greek royal family who ruled over Egypt. License. Lighthouse of Alexandria Illustrationby Prof. H. Thiersch (Public Domain). The murder of the popular young commander caused uproar among many of his fellow officers. Realizing Perdiccas' ploy, Ptolemy knew he had to free himself of Cleomenes, so he accused the unwary minister of 'fiscal malfeasance' - not a completely trumped-up charge - and had him executed. Alexander the Great conquered Persian-controlled Egypt in 332 BC during his campaigns against the Achaemenid Empire. After the death of Lysimachus, Ptolemy would marry his sister (and the king’s widow) Arsinoe II. Of course, this inbreeding was less than ideal; jealousy was rampant and conspiracies were common. Alexandria had a more strategic location, much closer to both the Mediterranean Sea and Greece. The sudden death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE brought chaos and confusion to his vast empire, for he died without naming an heir or successor, saying instead that the empire was left 'to the best.' They were the last dynasty of ancient Egypt.. Ptolemy, was one of Alexander the Great's generals and deputies. by Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin (CC BY-NC-SA). However, he regained the throne with the assistance of the Syrian governor Gabinius and was only able to remain through bribes and his ties to Rome as the Roman Senate actually distrusted him. Ptolemaic Kingby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). For only $5 per month you can become a member and support our mission to engage people with cultural heritage and to improve history education worldwide. This unique characteristic was maintained through intermarriage; most often these marriages were either between brother and sister or even uncle and niece. Several queens exercised regal authority, but the most famous and successful was Cleopatra VII (51 BCE-30 BCE), with her two brothers and her son as successive nominal co-rulers. He gained a small degree of success in the Fourth Syrian War (219 – 217 BCE) against Antiochus III. Of or relating to the astronomer Ptolemy. As a member of the Ptolemaic dynasty, she was a descendant of its founder Ptolemy I Soter, a Macedonian Greek general and companion of Alexander the Great. However, the Roman commander grew irate because he wanted to kill Pompey himself. The Ptolemys coexisted as both Egyptian pharaohs as well as Greek monarchs. All the male rulers of the dynasty took the name Ptolemy. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ptolemy VI Philometor was the sixth ruler of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. Ptolemy X Alexander I (140 – 88 BCE) was the younger brother of Ptolemy IX and had served as governor of Cyprus until his mother brought him to Egypt in 107 BCE, replacing his brother. The Ptolemaic dynasty / ˌ t ɒ l ə ˈ m eɪ. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 29 Sep 2016. Ptolemies Rule Egypt, The The Ptolemies, who originally came from Macedonia, were some of the most intriguing families in history. It was founded in 305 BC by Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander the Great, and lasted until the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC. Bust of Cleopatraby Louis le Grand (Public Domain). The last Ptolemaic queen, Cleopatra VII (l. c. 69-30 BCE), remained Macedonian but spoke Egyptian as well as other languages. This intense loathing brought about extreme persecution and expulsion for the inhabitants of the city. This dynasty was to rule Egypt and other holdings until the defeat of Antony at Actium (30BCE). Ptolemy Vby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). Regrettably, she failed to find compassion in Octavian, the future Emperor Augustus, and committed suicide. Despite having serious troubles with his brother, the future Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II (Benefactor), he married his sister Cleopatra II and began his tumultuous reign. We have also been recommended for educational use by the following publications: Ancient History Encyclopedia Foundation is a non-profit organization registered in Canada. Specify between which dates you want to search, and what keywords you are looking for. Of the fifteen Ptolemaic marriages, ten were between brother and sister while two were with a niece or cousin. Under Cleopatra VII there was a salt tax, a dike tax, and even a pasture tax. 17 Jan 2021. Record keeping was important, all land was surveyed and livestock inventoried. The most famous member of the line was the last queen, Cleopatra VII, known for her role in the Roman political battles between Julius Caesar and Pompey, and later between Octavian and Mark Antony. Several systems exist for numbering the later rulers; the one used here is the one most widely used by modern scholars. Ptolemaic queens, some of whom were the sisters of their husbands, were usually called Cleopatra, Arsinoe or Berenice. He left Egypt after being expelled in 88 BCE only to be lost at sea. In true Ptolemaic fashion, he married his brother’s widow, Cleopatra II, only to replace her with her daughter, his niece, Cleopatra III. Ancient History Encyclopedia. The book contains twelve chapters, by various authors, discussing aspects of the Greek and Egyptian bilingual and trilingual inscriptions from Egypt during the Ptolemaic period, from the conquest by Alexander the Great (332 BC) to the death of Kleopatra VII (30 BC). He had been a childhood friend of Alexander, his official taster, bodyguard, and even possibly a relative; rumors abound that he was the illegitimate son of Philip II, Alexander’s father. Late Period–Ptolemaic Period Osiris, foremost of the Egyptian funerary gods and ruler of the underworld, stands upright in a close-fitting enveloping garment. Unfortunately, he and his wife were both murdered in a palace coup in 205 BCE. She ruled Egypt for 22 years, controlling much of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Ptolemy Iby Mark Cartwright (CC BY-NC-SA). Initially, he had expected to gain favor with Caesar when he killed the Roman general Pompey, who had sought refuge in Egypt and presented the severed head to Caesar. Wasson, Donald L. "Ptolemaic Dynasty." Because of this move, Alexandria grew into more of a Greek rather than Egyptian city. The Ptolemaic reign in Egypt is one of the best-documented time periods of the Hellenistic era, due to the discovery of a wealth of papyri and ostraca written in Koine Greek and Egyptian. Although it was considered by many an Egyptian and not Greek occurrence – the mother goddess Isis married her brother Osiris – these sibling marriages were justified or at least made more acceptable by referencing tales from Greek mythology in which the gods intermarried; Cronus had married his sister Rhea while Zeus had married Hera. Coins of Egyptian Ptolemaic Empire rulers: 323-31 BC. One interesting suggestion made in the decree was for a new calendar, one that included 365 days with one additional day every four years, but it was not adopted. The Late Period of Egypt (525-332 BCE) is the era following the Third Intermediate Period (1069-525) and preceding the brief Hellenistic Period (332-323 BCE) when Egypt was ruled by the Argead officials installed by Alexander the Great prior to the rise of the Greek Ptolemaic Dynasty (323-30 BCE). Unfortunately, he also fought and failed in the Chremonidean War against Macedon (267 – 261 BCE). Dates are years of reign. Timeline Search. Later periods at Abydos have often been ignored in favor of its spectacular pharaonic period remains, but during the Ptolemaic period indigenous Egyptians and Greek speaking groups were intensely interested in the site. This inbreeding was intended to stabilize the family; wealth and power were consolidated. The Ptolemies were very much Hellenistic rulers, with the country as their military prize. Cleopatra VII Philopator (Koinē Greek: Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ; 69 BC – 10 August 30 BC) was the last active ruler of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt. Egypt had a closely controlled economy; much of the land was royal land and permission was needed to fell a tree or even to breed pigs. Alexander the Great (356-323 BC) liberated Egypt from the Persians in the autumn of 332 BC. Ptolemy I died in 282 BCE, and as his successor he named his son Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Sister-loving) (308 – 246 BCE). In 206 BCE dissidence arose in the Egyptian city of Thebes, and it would remain outside Ptolemaic control for twenty years. Another opportunity found him fighting a Spartan named Thribon who had seized the city of Cyrene on the North Africa coast. According to one historian, she was a descendant of such great Greek queens as Olympias, the overly-possessive mother of Alexander the Great. Search through the entire ancient history timeline. He … Of course, since Egypt had an economy based on agriculture, taxes based on the census and land surveys were essential. Oddly, while they ruled Egypt, they never became Egyptian. Instead, they isolated themselves in the capital city of Alexandria, a city envisioned by Alexander the Great. Like many of his predecessors, he would marry two of his sisters, Cleopatra IV, mother of Berenice IV, and Cleopatra V Serene who gave him two sons. Still, there was his ongoing rivalry with Perdiccas. In 145 BCE Ptolemy VI died in battle in Syria. His reign was marked by generous benefactions to the Egyptian temples, but he was detested as a tyrant by the Greeks, and the historical accounts of the reign emphasize his stormy relations with the Alexandrian populace. The Ptolemaic dynasty was a Hellenistic royal family which ruled over Egypt for nearly 300 years, from 305 BCE to 30 BCE. 332-30BC; kings descended from Macedonian Greek; includes kings Ptolemy I-XV, queens Cleopatra I-VII, and others; much intermarriage with the Seleucid royal house Seleucid Empire Ptolemaic Dynasty ca. Ptolemaic Period Egypt After Alexander’s death of a malarial fever in 323 B.C., the Macedonian commander in Egypt, Ptolemy, who was the son of Lagos, one of Alexander’s seven bodyguards, managed to secure for himself the satrapy (provincial governorship) of Egypt. Alexander was far more tolerant, even embracing their gods, praying at their temples. He was not the last of the Ptolemaic rulers, however. Unfortunately, the library and its contents were destroyed in a series of fires during its years under Roman control. While it may appear that Ptolemy I intended to transform Egypt into another Greece, in many ways he still respected the Egyptian people and recognized the importance of religion and tradition to their society. In 305 BCE, he declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as "Soter" (saviour). There was no attempt to become assimilated into Egyptian civilization. So Cleomenes of Naucratis, who had been named the Egyptian finance minister by Alexander, was appointed by Perdiccas as an adjunct or hyparchos to watch (or spy) on Ptolemy. However, in her defense, Cleopatra was the only Ptolemy to learn to speak Egyptian and make any effort to know the Egyptian people. Apparently, Ptolemy II was one the last truly great pharaohs of Egypt. Ptolemy V Epiphanes (Made-Manifest) (210 – 180 BCE) was the son of Ptolemy IV and Arsinoe III and due to the sudden death of his parents inherited the throne as a small child. Those commanders who had faithfully followed him from Macedon across the desert sands of western Asia were left to decide for themselves the fate of the kingdom. Please note that content linked from this page may have different licensing terms. He is eager to pass knowledge on to his students. The Ptolemaic dynasty /ˌtɒləˈmeɪ.ᵻk/ (Ancient Greek: Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids /ˈlædʒᵻdz/ or Lagidae /ˈlædʒᵻˌdiː/ (Ancient Greek: Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period. There was wealth beyond measure, largely dependent on agricultural production; its borders were easy to defend with Libya lying to the west and Arabia to the east (he was wise not to trust his fellow commanders); and it was friendly to his home of Macedon. After years of oppression under the Persians, the people of Egypt had welcomed Alexander and his conquering army. Lastly, while the capital may have been moved, the basic administrative structure was retained, although many of the Egyptian scribes had difficulty writing in Greek. In the city’s harbor, Ptolemy began the construction of the Pharos, a massive lighthouse (to be completed by his son Ptolemy II). The Egyptians soon accepted the Ptolemies as the successors to the pharaohs of independent Egypt. One of the unique and often misunderstood aspects of the Ptolemaic dynasty is how and why it never became Egyptian. Except for the first two Ptolemaic pharaohs, Ptolemy I and his son Ptolemy II, most of the family was fairly inept and, in the end, only maintained authority with the assistance of Rome. Her suicide at the conquest by Rome marked the end of Ptolemaic rule in Egypt. Wasson, Donald L. "Ptolemaic Dynasty." A second cult, which never gained popularity, was devoted to the god of healing Serapis. A Macedonian general by the name of Ptolemy, who had been with Alexander in Egypt, declared himself satrap of Egypt. The magnificent city had splendid palaces, temples, and libraries oriented on a Hellenistic street grid; cemeteries stretched to the east and west. Egypt was invaded twice (169 – 164 BCE) by Antiochus IV; his army even approached the city of Alexandria. With Cleomenes gone, he could now rule alone without anyone watching over his shoulder, and in doing so, he would establish a dynasty that would last for almost three centuries until the time of Julius Caesar and Cleopatra VII. Fishermen even had to relinquish twenty-five percent of their catch. Unfortunately, Ptolemy could not avoid some involvement with the other commanders, and he gave refuge to Seleucus and later supported Rhodes against the invading forces of Demetrius the Besieger, son of Antigonus. His time on the throne was short-lived. 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( 2016, September 29 ) the rulers were of. Great pharaohs of independent Egypt ruled until his death in 323 BC, his empire was divided between his.! The King ’ s army was defeated after an intense battle, mother... Egypt Great again content linked from this page may have different licensing.... By-Nc-Sa ) //ancientegypt.fandom.com/wiki/Ptolemaic_Dynasty? oldid=9293, Cleopatra III until 107 BCE when he fled to after. 30 BC who is known to History as simply Cleopatra 145 BCE Ptolemy VI Philometor the... His stay in Egypt, they never became Egyptian for almost three centuries ( –! He declared himself King Ptolemy I, later known as the intellectual center of Egyptian... Aspects of the Mediterranean Sea, Cleopatra III Philometor Soteira Dikaiosyne Nikephoros ( Kokke ) ( –! Visible for miles and was lit both day and night, eventually falling the... Fact, the overly-possessive mother of Alexander the Great ( 356-323 BC ) liberated Egypt from the city! Compromise whereby Ptolemy VI died in battle in Syria mother goddess Isis successor Ptolemy! The United Kingdom family that had ties to Alexander the Great in Babylonia V … Ptolemaic the... Great ( 356-323 BC ) liberated Egypt from the Greek city of Thebes, and mother, Ptolemy! Record keeping was important, all land was surveyed and livestock inventoried other holdings until the defeat Antony. Would rarely leave the city of Cyrene on the census and land surveys essential... Surveys were essential wives, who were often also their sisters Caesarion Ptolemy. Subside when Ptolemy stole Alexander ’ s death in 323 BC, his empire divided! The famous Cleopatra, Arsinoe I children were Ptolemy IV and a princess also named Berenice his rivalry. Of those who followed failed to find compassion in Octavian, the Ptolemies, who originally came Macedonia. But spoke Egyptian as well as Greek monarchs, much closer to both the Mediterranean Sea Roman commander grew because! First Ptolemy came to power after the death of Cleomenes, Ptolemy II was one last. Palace coup in 205 BCE ( and the King ’ s widow ) Arsinoe II and why it never Egyptian... In 116 BCE Macedonia, were usually called Cleopatra, the Ptolemies as the successors the... Roman emperor percent of their husbands, were some of whom were the last of the Egyptian city BCE to... And traditions – 205 BCE ) ( 2009-2021 ) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike, upright. Muhammed Amin ( CC BY-NC-SA ) Egypt lost valuable territory in the Aegean and Asia Minor, Palestine...