Argentine Revolution (Spanish language: Revolución Argentina Following three centuries of Spanish colonization, Argentina declared independence in 1816, and Argentine nationalists were instrumental in revolutionary movements elsewhere, a fact that prompted 20th-century writer Jorge Luis Borges to observe, “South America’s independence was, to a great extent, an Argentine enterprise.” The Argentine Fever (contains Viceroy Virus) Crisis Stage Incubation Stage -In many cases, a patient's temperature can reach 102.2° to 104° F. -Microbes of the bacteria begin to break from the original formation, spreading to multiple places throughout the body, which then evokes The Argentine War of Independence begins. He was responsible for the July 1966 La Noche de los Bastones Largos ("The Night of the Long Truncheons"), where university autonomy was violated, in which he ordered police to invade the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Buenos Aires. Another junta was created, with Saavedra as president, Dr. Mariano Moreno, and Dr. Juan José Paso as secretaries, and committee members Dr. Manuel Alberti, Miguel de Azcuénaga, Dr. Manuel Belgrano, Dr. Juan José Castelli, Domingo Matheu, and Juan Larrea, most of whom were creoles and patriots. [3], Onganía also ordered repression on all forms of "immoralism", proscribing miniskirts, long hair for young men, and all avant-garde artistic movements. This will be a formal evaluation of the war's progress and an assessment of whether it can be considered a true revolution according to Crane Brinton's Anatomy of Revolution. Buenos Aires' famous Plaza de Mayo, today known for protests by family members of those who "disappeared" during Argentina's military regime (1976-1983), is named for this turbulent week in 1810. On the 30th anniversary of the military coup in Argentina, we remind you of Ted Grant's article on the Argentine Revolution first published in July 1973. The Argentine independence movement began in 1806, when British attacks on Buenos Aires were repelled by local militia with little help from Spain. Argentine Revolution (Spanish: Revolución Argentina) was the name given by its leaders to a military coup d'état which overthrew the government of Argentina in June 1966 and began a period of military dictatorship by a junta from then until 1973. These were the first left-wing urban guerrilla actions in Argentina. The Night of the Long Batons, an Ongania's police action against University of Buenos Aires students and faculty came to be known. Coups, Self-coup, and attempted coups in Latin America since 1943. With María de la Paz, Fernando E. Solanas, Edgardo Suárez, Fidel Castro. Thus, Onganía had an interview with 46 CGT delegates, among them Vandor, who agreed on "participationism" with the military junta, thus uniting themselves with the Nueva Corriente de Opinión headed by José Alonso and Rogelio Coria. The Spanish were correct: the British had their eye on Buenos Aires and the rich ranching land it served. General Lanusse tried to respond to the Hora del Pueblo declaration by calling elections but excluding Peronists from them, in the so-called Gran Acuerdo Nacional (Great National Agreement). Buenos Aires' famous Plaza de Mayo, today known for protests by family members of those who "disappeared" during Argentina's military regime … In December 1969, more than 20 priests, members of the Movimiento de Sacerdotes para el Tercer Mundo (MSTM, Movement of Priests for the Third World), marched on the Casa Rosada to present to Onganía a petition pleading him to abandon the eradication plan of villas miserias (shanty towns). The May Revolution was a week-long series of events that took place From May 18 to 25, 1810, in Buenos Aires, Capital of the Vice royalty of the Río de la Plata. Argentina has vast natural resources in energy and agriculture. On the same night of August 22, 1972, the junta approved law 19,797, which proscribed any information concerning guerrilla organizations. The new Minister of Economy, Adalbert Krieger Vasena, decreed a wage freeze and a 40% devaluation, which strongly affected the state of the Argentinian economy - in particular the agricultural sector - and favored foreign capital. As he predicted back then, The capitalists having clutched the straw of Peronism, will turn to the stick of the generals once again. His administration started building infrastructure projects (roads, bridges, etc.) While Perón managed a reconciliation with Augusto Vandor, he followed, in particular through the voice of his delegate Jorge Paladino, a cautious line of opposition to the military junta, criticizing with moderation the neoliberal policies of the junta but waiting for discontent inside the government ("hay que desensillar hasta que aclare", said Perón, advocating patience). necessary for the development of the country, without responding to popular demands concerning social and economic policies. Argentinian Independence Around the turn of the 18th century, enlightenment ideas, social rivalries, and prohibitions on trade fueled the desire for social change. Six years after the creation of the first Argentine government on 25 May 1810, delegates from the United Provinces of South America declared themselves independent from Spain on 9 July 1816. Generals Juan Carlos Onganía, Marcelo Levingston and Alejandro Lanusse, the three successive dictators of the "Revolución Argentina". The Argentine Revolution started in 1806, resulting in the declaration of Argentina's independence from Spain on July 9, 1816. Towards the end of May 1968, General Julio Alsogaray dissented from Onganía, and rumors spread about a possible coup d'état, with Algosaray leading the opposition to Onganía. N obody in early 1976 was aware of the scale of the killing programme that Argentina's military were secretly starting to execute. Fernando Vaca Narvaja, Roberto Quieto, Enrique Gorriarán Merlo and Domingo Menna managed to complete their escape, but 19 others were re-captured. The lands of the eastern southern cone of South America, including Argentina, Uruguay, Bolivia, and Paraguay, had been steadily growing in importance for the Spanish crown, mostly because of revenues from the lucrative ranching and leather industry in the Argentine pampas. Around the same time, Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Spain and Portugal. "At the beginning, we … The last of the military presidents de facto of this period, Alejandro Lanusse, was appointed in March 1971. May 25 is the date celebrated in Argentina as the Día de la Revolución de Mayo, or "May Revolution Day." In cultural terms, it has given the … Under this pressure, Levingston was ousted by an internal coup headed by the Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces and strongman of the Revolución Argentina, General Alejandro Agustín Lanusse. Chile's Independence Day: September 18, 1810, Venezuela’s Declaration of Independence in 1810, Biography of José Francisco de San Martín, Latin American Liberator, How Latin America Gained Independence from Spain, The Complete Story of Venezuela's Revolution for Independence, What Is Sectionalism? Paraguay had already declared itself independent in 1811. They believed that the colonies needed little excuse to cast off Spanish rule. Latin American Revolutions The Latin American region witnessed various revolutions in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. This Spanish colony included roughly the territories of present-day Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Source: Shumway, Nicolas. Onganía's rule signified an end to university autonomy, which had been achieved by the University Reform of 1918. In 1969, the CGT de los Argentinos (led by Raimundo Ongaro) headed protest movements, in particular the Cordobazo, as well as other movements in Tucuman, Santa Fe and Rosario (Rosariazo). In 1806-1807, Argentina's independence movement began when the British attacked Buenos Aires. Napoleon, wanting someone he could trust, put his brother Joseph on the throne in Spain. A coalition of political parties issued the statement known as La Hora del Pueblo, calling for free and democratic elections which would include the Justicialist Party. He knocked Ferdinand VII out of power and caused a civil war in Argentina. Vasena suspended collective labour conventions, reformed the "hydrocarbons law" which had established a partial monopoly of the Yacimientos Petrolíferos Fiscales (YPF) state firm, and passed a law facilitating the eviction of tenants over their non-payment of domestic rent. Perón himself, from his exile in Franquist Spain, maintained a cautious and ambiguous line of opposition to the regime, rejecting both endorsement and open confrontation. The Argentine bourgeoisie was composed of landowners, who had control of large latifundias, and export businessmen, and confronted a huge number of discontented agricultural workers whose pay and conditions were appalling but whose dispersion in a large backward countryside was a great obstacle in their attempts to organize. Carlos Newland ** Javier Ortíz *** ** Rector, Universidad Argentina de la Empresa, Argentina. which led to the Latin American Wars of Independence. Ferdinand, in turn, was taken prisoner: he would spend seven years in luxurious confinement in the Château de Valençay in central France. On May 13, 1810, a British frigate arrived in Montevideo and confirmed the rumors: Spain had been overrun. The result of these revolutions was the formation of independent countries in Latin America. Che Guevara is conventionally depicted either as a saint of revolution, or a ruthless executioner. Definition and Examples, The "Cry of Dolores" and Mexican Independence, Major Battles of Mexico's Independence From Spain. Steven Soderbergh's epic biography "Che" doesn't feel the need to define him. The famous Plaza de Mayo in Buenos Aires is named in honor of these actions. This was followed by a series of military-appointed presidents and the implementation of neo-liberal economic policies, supported by multinational companies, employers' federations, part of the more-or-less corrupt worke… The junta declared itself rulers of Buenos Aires until such time as Spain was restored. This led many to question their loyalties to Spain: in their eyes, Spain took their taxes but did not hold up their end of the bargain when it came to defense. San Martín began an attack on Peru and within a year was able to capture the capital and declare Peru's independence. This was followed by a series of military-appointed presidents and the implementation of neo-liberal economic policies, supported by multinational companies, employers' federations, part of the more-or-less corrupt workers' movement, and the press. 1810 - The May Revolution occurs in Buenos Aires. History of Argentine Independence Day. The massacre led to demonstrations in various cities. The FreJuLi's electoral slogan was "Cámpora in Government, Perón in power" (Cámpora al Gobierno, Perón al poder). THE ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF ARGENTINE INDEPENDENCE *. e-mail: carlosnewland@uade.edu.ar *** Profesor, Universidad del CEMA y Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina. Beside these isolated actions, the Cordobazo uprising of 1969, called forth by the CGT de los Argentinos, and its Cordobese leader, Agustín Tosco, prompted demonstrations in the entire country. After Argentina's independence, many other Latin American countries soon followed suit, thanks to José de San Martín. [2] The federalization of the city of Buenos Aires promoted a certain degree of stability but failed to solve other historical Argentine problems. 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